Hitchhiker's Guide to Software Architecture and Everything Else - by Michael Stal

Wednesday, December 27, 2006

Product Lines

Software Product Line Engineering is one of the most interesting areas in software architecture today. And it is increasingly important in software development, in particular for the development of standard software products and embedded systems - those that we ususally consider to be software-intensive. Now, you might ask, what the hell is a software product line. One of the commonly accepted comes from the Software Engineering Institute (CMU) which defines a software product line (SPL) as “a set of software-intensive systems that share a common, managed set of features satisfying the specific needs of a particular market segment or mission and that are developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”. Got it? Let me introduce an example. Suppose, you are going to develop new IDEs (Integrated Development Environment). These new IDEs should come in different flavors, one edition for Ruby, one for Fortress, one for C#. How could we manage to develop such a series of editions? First approach: We develop all editions separately. This turns out to be a nightmare as we will need to set up a project for each language edition. But even worse, after a time, we will recognize that all of these projects will develop very similar modules, a GUI, a debugger, a source code browser, a project and configuration management subsystem, a refactoring toolset, an internationalization component, a plug-in manager, and so forth. Many of these core components are programming language independent. So why should we constantly violate the DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) principle?
Ok, what is the second approach? In our second attempt, we start developing the Ruby IDE taking special consideration to implement all subsystems such as the GUI, the debugger, you name it, in a re-usable way. After the Ruby IDE is completed, we can re-use existing components for further IDEs. Basically, we got a set of independent lego units which we are just might compose in different ways. Obviously, this is a much better approach in terms of productivity through re-use, but it turns out to add other challenges. For example, we have to come up with different application architectures that use the existing components in a bottom-up way. All of these architecture require a lot of effort themselves. In addition, it turns out that some of the components developed for the Ruby IDE are not appropriate for the Fortress IDE. Thus, we need to refactor them to be more generally applicable. But after that work we need also to refactor the Ruby IDE to integrate these refactored components. Of course, we might choose to end up with different versions of components. This is exactly one of the reasons why some projects experience death by unsystematic re-use.
Ok, what is the third approach? In the third approach we set up a development team that first analyzes which concrete IDEs we are going to develop. The team will take all requirements and define an general architectural framework for all of these IDEs. It will come up with commonalities which are all assets that should be part of the general framework. E.g., components such as the project and configuration management subsystem that are basically identical no matter which programming language you need to support. The team will also define the variabilities , i.e., things that vary among different IDE editions. For example, the abstract syntax editor framework might be a commonality, but the different concrete syntax editor implementations will vary. As we expect users to be interested in adding their own components to the IDE (for example tools that support programming conventions), we integrate a plug-in manager. This is an example for a component that supports variation over time. So the general team will set up an architectural framework with explicit variation points as well as other commonly used assets. As we expect these assets and even the architecture framework to evolve, we need to set up an environment where common assets and their evolvement can be supported. By the way, assets in this context can be different kinds of things: implementation artifacts, documents, models, test plans, and so forth. The setup of such a project will be very expensive but the Return On Investment will rock. As soon as everything is in place, the Ruby IDE team will be able to systematically instantiate the architectural framework with all commonalities, and also bind the variabilities according to their own needs. They will save a lot of time because they don't have to come up with their own, new software architecture from scratch and they can even use existing assets. What we have defined here, is Software Product Line Engineering. All products instantiated from the product line are often called Software Program Families. I hope, you got the basic idea. It is like in other industries such as car manufacturing where the car design team comes up with a new series of cars, defines what parts all of the models could share, and also defines the variabilities. Obviously, a development team must carefully identify whether is worthwhile to set up product line engineering. It is probably a bad idea when you only have two different products.
So far, the teams that develop concrete products use the architectural framework and the common assets but the rest will be plain-vanilla software engineering. In most cases, there is a lot of space for automating many activities. Take a production line in a car manufacturing plant as an example. In Software Factories the idea is to define a systematic plan of how a product is configured or implemented using the common architectural framework and common assets. The Software Factory will then allow automating the process of developing a concrete product by leveraging model-driven software development. In order to make this experience less challenging, the idea is to come up with a domain-specific language (instead of forcing everyone to use UML) and provide a generator that includes all knowledge about the architectural frameworks, as well as about commonalities and variabilities. The generator will take a model as an input and generate (most parts of) the concrete product.
An issue we must consider in this context is how to deal with evolution and change of core assets It is unlikely the architectural framework or other assets will remain unchanged forever. Thus, a systematic approach is required to give feedback from product instantiations to the product line itself. This also implies, you should always have separate teams for the product line itself and for the products. Otherwise, organizational issues might me very challenging. In other words: even, if you provide a product line engineering approach, you might be doomed to fail due to organizational problems. Needless to say, that the development process is also significantly different which you should take into consideration.
An interesting issue is the differentiation between a platform and a product line. In many cases, the most important core asset of a product line will be a complete platform. Eclipse is a good example for this. In this case, the platform will be the critical part of your whole product line. If it suffers from design erosion (see my last blog posting), this will have an impact on ALL products. That's why systematic evolution of common assets is so essential. Note, that a software product line does not necessarily have to introduce a platform. This is only one extreme, where we have prefabricated implementation of the common architecture and other common subsystems and components. Another extreme might be an application framework. Or we might only have a set of loosely-coupled artifacts and a software architecture. Thus, there are lot of options to implement software product lines.
In future postings I will address architectural issues related to product lines in much more detail.


  • Hello Michael,

    I suppose you're referring to the concept advocated here and and here (the CMU-SEI site).

    I think that today, like with many other concepts in Software Engineering we could use the examples available in the open source. You refer eclipse, which both provides a platform (Eclipse RCP) and the IDE platform. What do you think of other examples, like Mozilla or gcc?

    Mozilla has a common basis for the Firefox, Thunderbird and other lesser known projects. It also provides support tools (e.g., bugzilla) for the products' development.

    gcc enables the development of compilers for several languages to share a common low level translation to machine code.

    What do you think about these examples as fitting into the Software Product Line Engineering idea?

    Also, given the time gcc [and certainly others - would Unix apply here(?)] has been around, don't you think we're having some old idea/concept wrapped and sold as something new and fresh?

    By Blogger euluis, at 12:37 AM  

  • Dear Euluis,

    I brought up Eclipse as an example for a platform that helps with Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE). It is not a product line itself as the Eclipse Foundation did never plan to build a whole line of products at first place. But you may take Eclipse and some of the standard plug-ins/Features as the core assets and use them to instantiate products such as RadRails or JBuilder 2007. However, implementation artifacts are only part of the the core assets of a product line. You also need design, documents, test plans, ... And sometimes you must be able to evolve the core assets to adapt for requirements. Thus, you will at least require open source platforms. In general, a SPLE environment means, you are developing the core assets of your product lines as well as the products instantiated and that all of this all happens within the same organization. There also needs to be a SPLE process. Thus, I consider all of your examples as excellent platforms or core assets I would use in a SPLE setting, but SPLE is more than this.

    By Blogger Michael, at 9:44 AM  

  • And what do you think, do product lines have a common architecture? (As product families have according Czarnecki's book)

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 11:58 PM  

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